Angular 10 HttpClient and JavaScript Promises by Example

  • Author: Techiediaries Team

In this tutorial, we'll learn about JavaScript/TypeScript promises and we'll see how to use them by example with Angular 10 and HttpClient.

What's a JavaScript/TypeScript Promise?

A promise is a JavaScript/TypeScript object that may produce a value at some point in time. A promise may be in one of 4 possible states: fulfilled, rejected, pending or settled.

Promises simplify deferred and asynchronous computations. A promise represents an operation that hasn't completed yet. Source

A promise can be:

  • fulfilled - The action relating to the promise succeeded
  • rejected - The action relating to the promise failed
  • pending - Hasn't fulfilled or rejected yet
  • settled - Has fulfilled or rejected

This is an example of promise in plain JavaScript:

var promise = new Promise((resolve, reject) => { 
    resolve("Promise Resolved"); 
}) 

promise.then((success) => { 
        console.log(success); 
    }) 
    .catch(function(error) => { 
        console.log(error); 
    }); 
// Output: Promise Resolved

Promises can be executed by calling the then() and catch() methods.

The then() method takes two callback functions as parameters and is invoked when a promise is either resolved or rejected.

The catch() method takes one callback function and is invoked when an error occurs.

Promises with TypeScript and Angular 10 by Example

Let's now see how to use Promises in Angular 10 to work with HTTP asynchronously.

Head back to a folder where you want to create your project. Next open a command line interface and run the following command:

$ ng new angular10promises --routing=false --style=css

This will create a new Angular 10 application with no routing and CSS for stylesheets format.

Now open the src/app/app.module.ts file and import HttpClientModule and add it inside the imports array as follows:

import { BrowserModule } from '@angular/platform-browser';
import { NgModule } from '@angular/core';

import { AppComponent } from './app.component';
import { HttpClientModule } from "@angular/common/http";

@NgModule({
  declarations: [
    AppComponent
  ],
  imports: [
    BrowserModule,
    HttpClientModule
  ],
  providers: [],
  bootstrap: [AppComponent]
})

Next, open the src/app/app.component.ts file and add the following code to send an HTTP GET request and process the response using a Promise.

import { Component } from "@angular/core";
import { HttpClient } from "@angular/common/http";

@Component({
  selector: "app-root",
  templateUrl: "./app.component.html",
  styleUrls: ["./app.component.css"]
})
export class AppComponent {
  title = "Angular 10 and Promises Example";

  API_KEY = "e40d07f00b094602953cc3bf8537477e";

  constructor(private httpClient: HttpClient) {}

  ngOnInit() {
    console.log("Angular 10 Promises");
    this.fetchDataAsPromise()
      .then((data) => {
        console.log(JSON.stringify(data));
      })
      .catch((error) => {
        console.log("Promise rejected with " + JSON.stringify(error));
      });
  }

  fetchDataAsPromise() {
    return this.httpClient
    .get(
        `https://newsapi.org/v2/top-headlines?sources=techcrunch&apiKey=${this.API_KEY}`
      )
      .toPromise();
  }
}

We import HttpClient and inject it via the component constructor and use it to send the HTTP request.

Next, we call the get() method to send the request and the toPromise() method to convert the returned RxJS Observable to a promise.

  fetchDataAsPromise() {
    return this.httpClient
    .get(
        `https://newsapi.org/v2/top-headlines?sources=techcrunch&apiKey=${this.API_KEY}`
      )
      .toPromise();
  }

In the ngOnInit() life-cycle method, we send the actual request by calling the then() method of the promise as follows:

    this.fetchDataAsPromise()
      .then((data) => {
        console.log(JSON.stringify(data));
      })
      .catch((error) => {
        console.log("Promise rejected with " + JSON.stringify(error));
      });

If the promise is resolved successfully we simply output the data in the console and in case of an error we display the error.

Conclusion

We have seen how JavaScript/TypeScript promises are used with Angular 10 by example and how to make asynchronous operations such as HTTP requests instead of observables.


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