React Apollo Hooks & Testing: useQuery with refetch and MockedProvider example

In this example, we'll see how to use the new useQuery hook available from the apollo react-hooks package to send GraphQL queries and receive response with fetched data from APIs.

We'll also see how to test a React component that makes use of Apollo React hooks using MockedProvider available from @apollo/react-testing

The Apollo client provides two ways to send GraphQL queries:

  • Using the query method,
  • Using the useQuery React hook

The useQuery React hook allows you to pass a GraphQL query and will take care of fetching the data automatically.

Please note that the useQuery hook is not a built-in React hook such as useState or useEffect hooks but a custom hook provided by the @apollo/react-hooks package

We assume that you already have a React application ready. Let's also assume it's called react-app.

Navigate inside the project's folder and install the following libraries:

$ npm install graphql --save 
$ npm install graphql-tag --save

$ npm install apollo-client --save 
$ npm install apollo-link-http --save 
$ npm install apollo-cache-inmemory --save 

$ npm install react-apollo --save

Next, open the src/index.js file and add the following code to set up Apollo and connect it to your component(s) as follows:

import React from 'react';
import ReactDOM from 'react-dom';
import './index.css';
import App from './App';
import * as serviceWorker from './serviceWorker';

import { ApolloClient } from 'apollo-client';
import { InMemoryCache } from 'apollo-cache-inmemory';
import { HttpLink } from 'apollo-link-http';
import { ApolloProvider } from '@apollo/react-hooks';

const cache = new InMemoryCache();
const link = new HttpLink({
  uri: 'https://graphql-pokemon.now.sh/'
})

const client = new ApolloClient({
  cache,
  link
})


ReactDOM.render(<ApolloProvider client={client}><App /></ApolloProvider>, document.getElementById('root'));

Next, you can send GraphQL queries as follows:

import React from 'react';

import { useQuery } from '@apollo/react-hooks';
import gql from "graphql-tag";


export const QUERY = gql`
{
    pokemons(first: 150) {
      id
      number
      name
    }
  }
`
function App() {
  const { data, loading, error, refetch } = useQuery(QUERY);

  if (loading) return <p>Loading data...</p>;
  if (error) return (
    <React.Fragment>
      <p>Oops, error! </p> 
      <button onClick={() => refetch()}>Please try again!</button>
    </React.Fragment>
  );

  console.log(data);

  return (
    <React.Fragment>
      <h1>
        React Apollo useQuery Example

      </h1>

      <div className="container">

        {data && data.pokemons &&
          data.pokemons.map((item, index) => (

            <div key={index}>
              <p>
                {item.name}
              </p>
            </div>

          ))}
      </div>
    </React.Fragment>
  );
}

export default App;

Let's explain the code! We first import the useQuery hook and gql tag (which parses a string into a GraphQL query).

Next, we defined a constant called QUERY which holds our GraphQL query.

Next, inside the App component, we call the useQuery hook with our example query which will take care of sending the query to the API and return a result object that has data and other information about the response.

Next, we destructure the result object into data, error, loading and refetch properties.

refetch is a function that can be used to re-send the GraphQL query in case of error.

Finally we do some conditional rendering depending on the values of the error and loading variables.

If data is done loading, we iterate over the data variable using the JavaScript map() method and display the name of each item.

When you call the useQuery React hook, Apollo returns the data along with other properties. Most importantly:

  • loading: A boolean that tells if the request is still not done. If loading equals true, then the request is not yet finished.
  • error: It has information about what went wrong with your query if there is an error.
  • data: An object that contains the result of the GraphQL query returned from the API server.

Testing the Component

Now how to test a React component that makes use of the useQuery hook?

We can use MockedProvider available from the @apollo/react-testing package as follows.

Open the src/App.test.js file and update as follows:

import { MockedProvider } from '@apollo/react-testing';
import { act, render } from '@testing-library/react';
import React from 'react';

import App, { QUERY } from './App';

const MOCKS = [
  {
    request: {
      query: QUERY,
    },
    result: {
      data: {
        pokemons: [
          {
            id: 1,
            number: 1
            name: 'Pikatchu'
          }],
      },
    },
  },
];

async function wait(ms = 0) {
  await act(() => {
    return new Promise(resolve => {
      setTimeout(resolve, ms);
    });
  });
}

it('renders', async () => {
  const { container } = render(
    <MockedProvider addTypename={false} mocks={MOCKS}>
      <App />
    </MockedProvider>
  );
  expect(container.textContent).toBe('Loading data...');

  await wait();

  expect(container.textContent).toMatch('React Apollo useQuery Example');
  expect(container.textContent).toMatch('Pikatchu');
});

Conclusion

In this quick example, we've learned about the Apollo React useQuery hook and seen how to refetch data and how to test a React component that makes use of Apollo React hooks using the MockedProvider and React Testing Library

Note: We also publish our tutorials on Medium and DEV.to. If you prefer reading in these platforms, you can follow us there to get our newest articles.

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About the author

Ahmed Bouchefra
is a web developer with 5+ years of experience and technical author with an engineering degree on software development. You can hire him with a click on the link above or contact him via his LinkedIn account. He authored technical content for the industry-leading websites such as SitePoint, Smashing, DigitalOcean, RealPython, freeCodeCamp, JScrambler, Pusher, and Auth0. He also co-authored various books about modern web development that you can find from Amazon or Leanpub


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